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Blue-Stemmed or Wreath Goldenrod (Solidago caesia) - Flowers form a tight spiral around the blue-green stem. Location Gifford Pinchot SP, PA.

Hairy Golden Rod (Solidago hispida) prefers rocky hillsides. Leaves very hairy. Location: Little Stonecoal Tr, Dolly Sods Wilderness, WV.

Erect Goldenrod (Solidago erecta): Similar to Hairy Goldenrod (above) but sans hair. Upper leaves smooth, not toothed. Basal leaves much larger, serrated forming a rossette. Location: AT in the Three Ridges Wilderness, GWNF, VA.

Showy Goldenrod (Solidago speciosa): 2-6 ft. Found in woodland openings and fields.

Sharp-leaved Goldenrod (Solidago arguta): Brown stems. Leaves toothed. Lower leaves broader. Grows up to 7 feet. Blooms July - October. Location: Laurel Forks Wilderness, WV.

Rough-Stemmed  Goldenrod (Solidago  rugosa): Note the rough round stem (not square as in the rough leaved variety). The leaves are sharply toothed and very hairy. Found in boggy areas. Location: Cranberry Glads, WV.

Rough-Leaved Goldenrod (Solidago patula): Other goldenrod species might have somewhat rough leaf texture but the square stem of this variety sets it apart from the others.

Gray Goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis): One sided plumes of flowers. Leaves grayish-green.


Goldenrods (Con't)

Bog Goldenrod (Solidago uliginosa): Smooth stems and leaves. Leaves clasp the stem. Location: Roaring Plains, WV.

Early Goldenrod (Solidago juneca): Flower head can be either plumelike or elmlike. Leaves smooth and lanceolet. Note the small leaflets in upper leaf axels. Basal leaves are several times larger than those found on the rest of the plant and toothed.

Seaside Golden Rod (Solidago sempervirens): As the name applies this plant is found along beaches and the edges of salt marshes. Flower head may be either clublike or plumelike. All leaves long, lanceolet, toothless and fleashy. Upper leaves two to five inches. Lower leaves up to 12 inches long. Location: Downs Park, MD.

Late Goldenrod (Solidago gigantea): three to six feet tall. Leaves veined, smooth with few serrations. Downy pale green stem and underside of leaves. Blooms August to November.

Elm-leaved Goldenrod (Solidago ulmifolia): Flower branches reminiscent of a tree. The toohed leaves create a whorled effect. Very small flowers.

Sweet Goldenrod (Solidago odora): Leaves are thinner than those found on most other Goldenrods.They are smooth, toothless and parallel veined. Crushed the smell like anise.

Goldenrods (Con't)

Lance-leaved Goldenrod (Solidago graminifolia): The common flat top Goldenrod. Grows 1 - 4 ft. Slender, willow-like leaves. Grows along roadsides, stream banks, wet places. Blooms July to October. Location: Laurel Forks Wilderness, WV.

Downy Goldenrod (Solidago puberula): Upper leaves small, smooth and toothless. Lower leaves large with extended petioles. Stem is purple in some specimens

Dandelion-like Flowers

Hairy Hawkweed (Hieracium gronovii): Little to no leaves on the stems. Only the lower stem and basal leaves are hairy. Blooms July-October. Location: Downs Park, MD.

Panicled Hawkweed (H. paniculatum): Small blossoms on stalks arising horizontally from the main stem. Leaves pointed. Location: Cranberry Backcountry, WV.

Common Sow-thistle (Sonchus oleraceus): Dandelion-like leaves with sharp spikes at the tip of the lobes. Dandelion-like flowerFields, roadsides, open areas. Location: Downs Park.

Wild Lettuce (Lactuca canadensis): Plant can grow to 10 feet in height. Candlelabra of 1/4" flowers that turn into seed parachutes. Leaves vary from dandelion-like to lanceolet. Crushed foilage produces a milky liqud hence the scientific name "Latuca".


Rattlesnake-Weed (Hieracium venosum): Gets its name because it thrives in the same habitat as Rattle snakes. Blooms April to September. The blue-green Oval leaves with dark purple veins are quite conspicuous. Close up by David Bennick.


Yellow Salsify (Tragopogon dubius): Odd shaped flower. The long green bracts behind the petals distinguish it from others in the genus. Grows in dry, open places. Location: Mudhole Gap Tr, Massanutten Mt, VA.


Nipplewort (Lapsana communis): An alien in the dandelion family. Location: Hammersley Wild Area, PA. 07/09.

Two-flowered Cynthia 0r Orange Dwarf Dandelion
(Krigia biflora) - 1-2 feet. Blooms May-August. Location: Cape Henlopen. Photo by Ken Clark.


Hawkweed: one of several Hieracium species. Related to RattleSnake Plant  and dandelions. Location: Twin Oak Schoolhouse, Green Ridge SF, MD.


Colt's Foot (Tussilago farfara): In the Dandelion family. Blooms quite early. Location: Racer Camp Hollow Trail, GWNF, VA.

Narrow-leaved Hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum): An alien. Long, weak branches with thin, grass-like leaves. Small flowers arising from leaf axils give rise to white tufted seeds.



Round-Leaved Yellow Violet (Viola rotundifolia): Leaves the same as common purple Violets but the flower petals are quite different. Location: Shenk's Ferry Wildflower Preserve, Holtwood Recreation Are, PA.

Downy Yellow Violet (Viola pubescens): Heart-shaped leaves. Downy stems and leaves especially along margins and veins. Location: G. Richard Thompson WMA, VA.

Halberd-leaved Violet (Viola hastata): Unmistakable long, triangular leaves. Location: AT, along Rocky Row Run, VA.

St. Johnsworts & Similar Flowers


St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum): A tea made from the leaves is supposed to act as an anti-depressant. Blooms June to September. This specimen found in full sun as thickets in Dolly Sods, MNF, WV.

Camphorweed (Heterotheca subaxillaris): Prefers dry, sandy soil. Notice the clasping, wavy leaves. Location: Glendending Preserve sand barren, MD


St. Johnsworts & Similar Flowers (Con't)

Pale St. Johnswort (H. ellipticum): Similar to H. perforatum but with a different growing habit: a small cluster of flowers atop a single stem lined with paired leaves. Grows 8 to 20 inches. Location: Quehanna Wild Area, PA.

Dwarf St. Johnswort (Hypericum mutilum) Some of the paired leaves may appear perfoliate (joined together around the stem) but they are considered sessile (no stems). The flowers are about 1/8 inch across.

Canadian St. Johnswort (Hypericum canadense) Another miniature SJW st 1/4 inch. Leaves very narrow and lancelet. Sparse bush up to 18 inches tall.

Shrubby St. Johnswort (H. apathulatum): Very woody, much branched bush up to 4 feet in height. Flowers are smaller than the others described above.

Saint Andrew's Cross (Hypericum hypericoides). In the St. Johnswort family but with four petals instead of five. Prefers sandy soil. Only grows to about six inches. Location: Downs Park, MD. 07/09.

Beach Heath or Golden-Heather (Hudsonia tomentosa) -  Grows 4-8  inches. Blloms May to July. Location: Cape Henlopen SP, DE. Photo by Ken Clark.

Pine Barren Heath or Golden Heather (Hudsonia ericoides): Similar to H. tomentosa, above. Location: Pine Barrens of New Jersey. photo by Dimitri Tundra.

Seed Box (Ludwegia alternifolia): Petal give way to a roundish "box" which holds the seeds. Location: Downs Park, MD.

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